In about a year I am moving to Tennessee as I’ve mentioned on this blog previously, and it is starting to feel closer and closer. I’m sure this last year will go quickly, and I’m starting to make plans for how to move my garden.
One of the benefits of moving, in addition to the much better climate, is the land. I have 20 acres in Tennessee, here in Michigan I have maybe ¼ acre, and only a fraction of that able to be garden. I have been planning my gardens down there since we’ve bought the land, and I know I have, literally, acres of planting to do, that is something that requires planning.
For instance, in the front yard by the driveway, I know I’ll want to do a formal hedge like in an English garden using different colors of barberry. I will need maybe a hundred golden barberries and a hundred red ones to achieve my design, and these are plants that usually sell for $5-$10 each at the cheapest. It quickly adds up. So what I’ve started doing, a year out from now, is harvesting from my own garden as much as possible so as to seed my future garden as cheaply as possible.
Propagation from Cuttings
This means propagation, and one of the most common ways is with cuttings. Cuttings are one of the most common methods of propagation, one that most know of, even if it isn’t suitable for all plants. Barberry luckily for me does very well with cuttings and so I have approximately 148 golden barberry cuttings in trays with now, hoping that enough of them take root to give me the plants I need. I also had some barberry cuttings spawned from my regular hedge trimming just growing in various places, volunteer cuttings if you will, and I potted those up. Next step will be for me to take some from my red barberries and do the same thing. It is a bit of painful work, barberry have thorns, and it is delicate work, which means the loss of dexterity from wearing gloves is annoying, but if it saves me hundreds of dollars, I’ll do it.
I know somewhere out there someone is likely fuming “Barberry… but that is invasive where I live how dare you plant it, and plant so many!” Relax. Not every barberry is invasive everywhere, and not every barberry is invasive at all. Many hybrids, like the ones I’m using are sterile.
If the cuttings take I’ll transplant them into larger pots, of course, before I take them to my new garden.
Propagation from Layering
I also plan to do a lot of edible gardening with my new land, and one of the things I plan to grow are boysenberries. Boysenberries spread with underground runners like raspberries do, but they also have very very droopy canes, and where the canes touch the ground they’ll root, forming a new plant. Many plans do this, most if not all vines for instance, verbenas, hydrangeas can. Some plants do it quickly and easily without any help, some need a little help. But this is a great way to get new plants because the new root system is fed by the parent plant until you cut the cord, so to speak. The plants can be much more successful than with cuttings, which have to develop a new root system without a current root system pumping over nutrients.
With some plants you must bend down a portion of stem or cane, sometimes peel back park, and maybe pin it to the earth, or put a brick or layer of something on top of it to ensure consistent contact with the soil. My boysenberries likely do not need the help, but I am pinning them down with a few rocks to help increase my quantity of potted plants.
These I plan to take down this fall, plant in some out of the way area of my 20 acres where construction will not damage them, and let their national spreading instincts take over, so that late next summer when we move I can transplant them into rows in my berry orchard (with a trellis).
Propagation from Divisions
Many plants, over time, simply grow and spread naturally, and you can dig and divide the root balls or otherwise and form new plants. This is how I’m dealing with my raspberries, digging up all the little plants that have spread from underground runners. Raspberries could also be done with layering I think, but their more upright rigid canes make it more difficult. Other plants that can be done with this method are any sort of ornamental grass, any sort of groundcover really, daylilies, hostas, irises, and many other perennials. Often you need to dig and divide a perennial every few years anyways just to keep the garden fresh, selling the divisions or giving them away.
I haven’t started yet but I definitely will be doing this with my daylilies. I have quite a collection of daylilies, including some rare and more expensive varieties (I paid $200 for my most expensive one if you can believe that. Yes, sir I’m addicted to gardening). I won’t want to scalp my yard and leave it barren for the next owner, I take pride in the garden I’ve created, but I will be taking divisions off many of my plants, leaving some behind in place for the next owner of my current home, but taking others with me. It is a money issue again really, if I needed 100 daylily plants, even at $5 each that is a steep bill, but I can easily pull 100 divisions off my garden. If I really tried I could probably pull a thousand divisions, I have a ton of daylilies. The majority of my ornamental beds are bordered with them.
Propagation from Seeds
And the most obvious method of propagation a plant is with seeds, though this is no true propagation is it? You’re not planting more of the exact same plant if it is a hybrid, you’re planting its children, which could be entirely different, but nothing beats it for price. It also take more time. A daylily planted for seed can take over a year before it flowers for the first time, and it will look different from its parents. I’ll be taking some of the non-hybrid plant seeds I have with me, things I seed every year like lunaria annua. . But I’m also thinking about hostas.
My favorite application with daylilies is as a border, a whole row of the same plant, with the same flower color. So daylily seeds, which produce random offspring, aren’t a good avenue to achieve what I want. However, my favorite type of hosta planting is a big bed of a bunch of random different sized and colored hostas. I don’t much care about tracking individual cultivars like I do with daylilies (though, I do like exceptionally large hostas, which are typically cultivars). So, in addition to taking divisions of my plants, I also am trying to do some pollination this season and will collect the seeds and see about using them to seed a large hosta bed in the shadier locations of my new property. I do have different areas picked out on my land in Tennessee for sun ornamental beds, shade ornamental beds, that one formal bed I mentioned above, informal beds, and of course an epic martha stewart sized vegetable garden.
I don’t like throwing things away, so over the years, when I’ve bought plants, I’ve saved the little cheap plastic pots they come in, and so I have quite a collection, but I also use those when I give plants away, and well, I don’t have enough for all that I’m doing. Luckily for whatever reason, there has been, seemingly, in recent years, a growth in stores selling all the equipment you need for plant propagation and container growing. The trays and pots and everything else. I guess there must be new industries in some states where people are often growing plants in their home, can’t guess what that is…. So anyways, I was able to buy the trays and bulk pots for fairly cheap at greenhousemegastore, shipping was quick too which I like. You could also be frugal and repurpose (clean) household containers that you would otherwise recycle, all your tin cans and or plastic bottles. Just make sure you drill drainage holes in the bottom. They are might not be UV stabilized so might not last long.
An established garden really can be fruitful, I’ve read articles before where people make thousands of dollars a year doing driveway sales of divisions and cuttings taken from their gardens. Gardening is perhaps a unique hobby in that way. If you go fishing, your odds of catching more fish don’t increase with every fish you catch. But when you garden, your garden itself increases the size of your plant collection every season, and you can use that bounty to expand your gardens, make a little spending money, gift friends and family, or beautify public spaces.
Say what? You hear all the time about the health benefits of gardening, usually amounting to moderate activity for otherwise sedentary adults, but what about the health risks? Believe me, they exist.
Recently I encountered one. I was dealing with old roses, the polar vortex killed every last one I had down to the ground so I was pruning out all the old dead canes and then dragging them to my brush pile. I was wearing gloves, gloves with leather palms, but ventilated fabric backs. A rose thorn came in through the back of the glove and stabbed me in the second joint of my right ring finger. A fleshwound… but an infected one unfortunately. I was worried a fungus known to exist on rose thorns infected me, but luckily it was just bacteria, and I sort of mean that sarcastically. Before the discovery of antibiotics I would have lost a finger, if not the hand, ouch. Luckily today all I had to deal with was pain (a ton of swelling it that joint) some temporary loss of range of motion, and taking pills. The fungus would have been worse. Rose Handler’s Disease, otherwise known as sporotrichosis is an infection from a nasty fungus that can take a year or more to heal, requires you to take medicines with nasty side effects, and even today can result in amputations, especially if it gets into a joint. Here is a guy’s video on youtube where he talks about getting it, and sure, it looks small, but check the comments, his most recent one says he has been on treatment for 14 months, the wound oozes and will not heal, and he may still lose his thumb. If you have a strong stomach check out a google image search. Yuck, now remember, over a year to heal.
I don’t know where I first learned about sporotrichosis, but I knew about it before now, so as soon as it became obvious to me I had an infection I went right to the doctor hoping to head it off before it got bad, and luckily, luckily, it was just bacteria. This is no joke though, it isn’t something you’d only get if you were pruning roses in Africa or something, you can get this anywhere, in fully modern first world countries.
How do you avoid it? Don’t grow roses, but it isn’t just on roses (or always on roses either, it wasn’t on mine I guess). But wear gloves. these gloves on Amazon aren’t cheap, but unlike the gloves I had they have leather all around, on the back of the hand too, is your health worth the gamble?
So this episode got me thinking, what are other health risks of gardening?
The big C, yes, did I scare you? Gardening by definition happens outside, in the sun, the sun that causes skin cancer. If you’re caucasian, and you garden, and you don’t die young in an accident, you’ll probably get skin cancer one day. Hopefully it is a more benign kind, easily found, easily removed, but it is more or less a sure thing with enough sun exposure, especially when young. Radiation takes time to turn our cells cancerous, radiation from any source, the sun, X-rays, etc. A significant percentage of brain tumors for instance have been traced to CT scans given before the age of 30, to the point where many doctors have said on record they want to avoid ordering such scans on young people unless it is a life or death situation. See, when your cells get damaged from radiation it is a bit like that old campfire game where you whisper something around the circle and see how garbled it gets by the end. Each time the cell replicates the damage gets a little worse until eventually the cell can turn cancerous.
In a way we need to think differently about our kids. We might let them eat junk food because they’re growing and their not yet at an age where heart disease is a problem, this is not the same thing with sun exposure, the seeds of skin cancer in your 50s, 60s, and 70s are sown before you’re 20. Said another way, the younger you are, there is more effect on your potential eventual contraction of skin cancer for ANY sun exposure you get. Please, make your kids wear sun hats and put sunblock on them.
And yes, if you’re older, you still have to worry too, it is never too late to protect your skin from the sun’s damaging radiation. If you garden, you should have a garden hat, and please put sunblock on your shoulders, arms, and legs too. Get a hat with as wide a brim as you can find, and try to find one rated UPF 50+ for sun protection, not just any old hat, but one specifically treated to protect you from the sun. I like this brand.
Sun exposure is also responsible for aging our skin and destroying our collagen giving us wrinkles and making us old. So, you can be safe and beautiful, wear a hat.
Tetanus is a potentially deadly infection caused by a bacteria often found in soils. I remember when I once had a university greenhouse job it was mandated I get a booster shot before I could work there. All adults should receive a tetanus booster every 10 years, but gardeners definitely should. You can literally die from tetanus, even today.
My last tetanus shot was in 2008, when was yours? Do you remember? If you don’t remember make an appointment and get it done.
Mosquitoes and other insects can also pose dangers as you work in your yard. Are there venomous spiders or snakes where you live? Do you take steps to avoid them such as bringing boots and gloves inside always? I did a whole blog post previously about mosquitoes and they can infect you with a variety of diseases, and it seems new mosquito born illnesses are coming to our shores all the time. Use a bug spray with DEET, and make your yard less mosquito friendly.
So we know about poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, lots of plants can cause itchiness, rashes, contact dermatitis, but there is one that is even worse. Giant Hogweed, touching this plant can cause permanent scarring the blindness. One was recently removed from a yard in a nearby town and the people had to wear hazmat suits, see the below video:
Here is an image showing the progression of the damage:
Hogweed is a native to Asia and was introduced (by some idiot I’m sure) to New York in 1917, from there it has spread around the NE, into Canada, and also now Michigan:
If you see it, don’t touch it, but make sure you kill it or get someone else to kill it. Dump roundup on it from afar, pour vinegar or boiling water over it, burn it out with a weeding torch (wonderful tool).
But do not touch it.
Ears & Eyes
If you use power tools, you should always protect your ears and eyes. Hearing degrades all throughout our life and you’ll make yours last longer if you remember to protect it from loud noises. That your eyes need protection goes without saying, you don’t want a shard of something in your eye. Always wear appropriate protective gear when using power tools.
This is doubly true for chainsaws, probably the most dangerous tool a gardener may ever use. Not only should you use ear, eye, and head protection, but you should wear special chainsaw protective chaps and a protective jacket, ERs every year get people who accidentally cut into their own legs or into a shoulder (because of kickback) with a chainsaw. Chainsaws are no joke, you probably don’t want a severed limb so get the gear you need to stay safe.
Aches, Pains, Sprains
I once tried to lift a very large planter full of soil, others may not have even tried, but I was a young man and strong, but I lifted poorly, and twisted, and severely sprained my back/sacrum. It has been stiff ever since, and I’m talking like years later. I’ve had the full course of medical treatments , all different sorts of doctors, physical therapy, and etc, but it still bothers me every once in awhile.
Stretch, what helps the most with my back is stretching my hamstrings, because everything is connected and tight hamstrings pull your back and pelvis down and create pain, stretch your legs often, trust me, it really helps in the long wrong.
When lifting, always lift with your legs, if you don’t know how to do that, look up a video of someone doing a goblet squat. You keep your back straight, bend with the knees, and go up. Do not lift and twist at the same time.June 16th, 2014
There doesn’t seem to be a crop out there that doesn’t have a perfectly adapted insect pest (or score thereof) to attack it.
Last year I my pear tree did not produce well. Overall it looked sickly, with yellowish leaves, smaller fruits, and black spots (sooty mold) on the leaves. I noticed small bumps on the twigs but they were hard and didn’t seem to be anything weird, maybe they were buds where future branches would grow?
In the Spring, as it was leafing out, I examined it again, and noticed these little bumps were still there, but obviously not the source of any new growth. Still hard, still not wanting to be removed, I tried harder, and with additional fingernail pressure, they came off. Bugs, insects, scales. I had heard of scale, being interested in gardening, but had never seen one or researched it. I simply knew it as the name of a pest and I knew instantly what insect this was, because, well, they were aptly named.
Turns out they were likely infecting it last year too, and their secretions were responsible for the black sooty mold as well, their secretions were providing the fuel for the fungus to grow.
I had a full blown infestation on my hand, and I checked my other fruit trees, apricot, infected, apples infected, even my supposedly pest & disease free pawpaw had a few. I researched controls but couldn’t find any, obviously I had too large an infestation for natural predators to control it, if the beneficial insects hadn’t done their job by now, they wouldn’t be. Apparently in late Spring there are some sprays you can use, organic or otherwise, that can help with control. I did a lot of hand cleaning on the branches I could reach as well. Ultimately I settled on a Bayer product, Bayer Advanced Fruit, Citrus, and Vegetable Insect Control. Found at Home Depot or Amazon.com through the link. This is a systemic insecticide, meaning it works, well, like people medicine works, like antibiotics work. You water it into the tree, it gets inside the tree, and the insects who suck from the tree then ingest it, and die. Normally you don’t want to use systemic products on edibles, but this was specifically formulated for fruit trees.
It isn’t organic, but I’m not a zealot, if I thought releasing 100 ladybugs into the tree would have fixed the problem I would have tried that, but I couldn’t find any really good solution to the infestation outside of “deal with it” or “try spraying an oil on the tree a year from now and you’ll get [i]some[/i] benefit.” So I reached for the big guns, and considering I can’t really reach the highest points on these trees, more or less my only option. So far so good, but I’ll update this post after more time has passed.June 1st, 2014
The coldest winter in decades, what damage did it do to the garden? Well, so far, I don’t know I lost any plants, nothing actually died, though a few I’m wondering about.
I’m not sure if it was the cold or something else, but my pear tree barely flowered, my honeycrisp apple tree didn’t flower at all (sadface) and my golden delicious apple tree barely flowered. It wasn’t like two years ago, where we had an early warm up, flowers, and then a hard cold snap right during the flowering stage and mine, and 90% of Michigan’s, apple crop was destroyed. This year we had a cold Spring, but once it did warm up, it stayed warm, the plants simply did not flower. I suppose that the extra, long lasting (months without a day above freezing) cold damaged the flower buds over the winter. So that is really disappointing.
All of my roses, all of my roses, even by “sub zero” roses, and my climbing rose which has never had dieback, died back to the ground and are sending up new canes. The grafted ones look like the new canes are still above the graft but I’m not 100% sure.
Many of my evergreens showed winter burn. This essentially comes from dehydration and is caused by a combination of cold, long term cold, wind & sun exposure. My cedrus deodara Karl Fuchs, which is only supposedly marginally hardy here in Michigan, survived, with some internal dieback/winter burn (needle loss) on the middle lower area, but it is already putting on new growth so, after a generationally cold winter, surviving, I say it will survive in Michigan. Of course I also have it tucked in by a large spruce protecting it from drying winter winds/sun.
My dwarf Alberta spruces, I say that again, dwarf Alberta spruces, had significant winter burn, they are on a western exposure so did get a lot of drying winter sun, but I thought they would do better than this. They are already putting on new growth though.
My dwarf, standard form, yellow dwarf hinoki cypress, also had significant winter burn and die back – I am not quite sure if this tree will make it yet or not, it grows so so so slowly I don’t know if it has any new growth on it or not yet.
My three deciduous conifers all are doing fine. I have a weeping larch (definitely hardy) a bald cypress (a southern tree I’m really pushing the hardiness on) and a metasequoia ‘Gold Rush’ which I’m also really pushing the hardiness on. All are doing fine, but regenerating needles yearly means they aren’t at risk of winter burn, but I had no dead limbs or anything either. I can say that it seems to me metasequoia ‘Gold Rush’ is hardier than the species form of that tree, as I know of a planting where both were planted and the species form was killed one winter before.
My weeping red japanese maple, also at the northern limit of its hardiness, is fine as well.
In summary, I have a good excuse to clean out the rose garden, my fruit production is going to be very low this year (which is the worst part), but it looks like none of my trees or other plants actually died, which considering I am aggressive with my zoning is pretty good I think. Of course, a lot of them are looking kind of ratty and will need a good season of growth to look good again.March 31st, 2014
Today it was 61 degrees out, woohoo, finally, after such a cold cold Winter & Spring. Of course, tommorow it starts getting cold again, but today was nice, and I spied my first flower.
I was out in the garden doing what you should do this time of year, which is prune trees if they need to be pruned, and clean up old spent perennials from last year, getting the garden ready for new growth. You prune trees now because they store all their energy in their roots while dormant, so by cutting off dormant limbs you’re not cutting out any of the tree’s stored energy – but then you wait until the end of Winter to do it because that way the wound is open for longer. Once the sap starts flowing the tree will close it up, and all that sap, since it has fewer limbs to go into, will push up and out and generate a lot of new growth.
So while out doing this and pruning my bald cypress I noticed a little crocus poking out and I was thoroughly surprised, the snow only just melted, and in fact, in shady areas, it still hasn’t melted. We’ve got a few inches still, and the ground only just unfroze too in most areas, but I guess the crocuses were as anxious for Spring as me.
My first flower is always a crocus, but this year it is purple.
In 2012, hah, I remember 2012, a warm Spring, the end of March already had fruit trees blooming. My first flower was a yellow crocus on March 10th. In 2011 it was the same flower, on the 15th, in 2010 on the 16th, and in 2009 also on the 15th. This is the Michigan misery metric I use, the date of the first bloom dictates how miserable winter has been. It looks like I forgot to check in 2013.
So this year was slightly different, a purple one was first, and it was in a new location from prior first blooms, and of course, it was practically April before it showed up.March 11th, 2014
Spring is a time of optimism, of renewal, of growth, well, normally. Unless you live in Michigan under the specter of the polar vortex.
This winter has been horrible, absolutely horrible. I normally am not one to get worn down spiritually by the winter, but I have this time. I hate it here, I absolutely hate it. It hasn’t even been a fun winter, where you can go out sledding, or skiing, or building a snow man. It has been too cold even for any of that. We’ve had more days below 0 than above freezing. I’m sure some plants will have perished by the time Spring rolls around, even my dwarf alberta spruces (the key word being Alberta, a place I’m told is colder than Michigan) are showing significant winter burn.
But I just got back from Florida (yay!) and the vitamin D did me a little good, so I’m feeling more optimistic… so much so that despite the feet of snow still lingering on the ground, I’ve started seeds. No, not outdoors, but indoors in trays. In 6 weeks we won’t be past any frost danger, especially this year unless that god forsaken polar vortex goes away, but I could put out cold hardy plants like kale and spinach and beets, so I’ve planted them, and I even planted tomatoes and peppers too, though they will have to stay indoors longer.
But I hate Michigan weather, and I cannot wait to move, and I am moving. I probably only have one winter left here and I’m moving to Tennessee, wonderful Tennessee, where did you know the appropriate planting time for trees is February? Yes, February, when Michigan is still buried in snow, you can plant trees in Tennessee. So I had some planted. A couple years ago I bought some land, we recently had the home site cleared, and we hope to start construction soon, but I had my contractor go up and plant 14 trees for me. 8 apples, two pears, two plums, and two apricots. This will be my orchard.
I could have waited, and planted trees once I move down there, but I love home grown produce, I love being able to go out and pick an apple or pear, and I’d miss not being able to do that when we move. In my opinion every home should have an apple tree, and I certainly wanted many, but it takes time for them to reach fruit bearing size. So I had them planted now. They won’t bear fruit this year, they won’t bear fruit in 2015, but it is possible they’ll bear fruit in 2016, the first full year we’d live down there. By planting them now I’m getting a head start on that growth and I’ll be without fruit for a shorter period of time. If you’ve been thinking about planting an apple tree or something, stop thinking and just do it, they need time to grow, time you can’t get back if you miss the opportunity. I got all mine from Stark Bros, and if you need one variety, pick a Honeycrisp, but you should do it. If you have a 4′ x 4′ space with sun in your yard, you should have an apple tree. You can buy them dwarf sized, so they’ll never get large (which also makes them easier to harvest from). Carpe diem.
I’m really happy to be moving, in addition to more land so I can plant more trees, I’ll have room for a massive Martha Stewart sized vegetable garden, room for chickens and maybe even pigs or goats, and… dun dun dun… a greenhouse! I cannot wait until I have a greenhouse. Right now I don’t even have a south facing window. Indoor growing or seed starting is difficult. I am restricted to a small ledge by a large east facing window in the kitchen. With a greenhouse (and it’ll be over 300 sq/ft), I get giddy thinking about all the seeds I’ll be able to start, the plants I’ll be able to grow year round. Tennessee also has a much longer growing season than Michigan which means I’ll get more crops in, and all my trees and ornamentals should put on more growth each year, getting bigger faster. Zone 7, so many more plants I can grow in Zone 7 than Zone 5. Maybe even hardy varieties of olive or agave, I can’t wait.February 23rd, 2014
In December, right before Christmas we were hit by a major ice storm, the worst in decades. People at the power company said it was the worst they could remember. We didn’t lose power, luckily, but people all over our town did, some for as long as 10 days (into January). Major commercial areas lost power, more traffic lights were off than were working, downed power lines were everywhere, some left for days or weeks, because they didn’t have the man power to fix them all. This isn’t Georgia either, this is Michigan, we have tons of crews and plows and salt and people trained for this sort of weather, and it still took weeks.
Then because of the polar vortex the ice stuck on the trees for weeks, and if not for an early January warmup (above freezing for maybe 2 days, woohoo!) it’d still be there. Luckily we didn’t have much wind or it would have been worse, with even more trees falling (as it is, every single yard had a branch in it). To this day I’m unable to take down my Christmas lights because they’re frozen in thick ice (now topped with snow). Likewise branches still litter curbsides everywhere around town as crews couldn’t get them picked up before the snow entombed them.
It was beautiful, peaceful, annoying, and dangerous all at once. I went outside, carefully, and it was quiet, and I live on a 4 lane road, but no one was out, not even the sound of a distant snowblower, it was still, like in the country where I grew up, and then CRACK, or BANG. You’d head or see branches fall, it was like the opening day of deer season out there. If this happens to you, be careful, and do not go outside, and if you do do not walk or stand underneath trees.
It made for a very white Christmas, and it was pretty, but thousands of people spent the holidays in a hotel, and many trees were lost.
For your garden there isn’t much you can do. For heavy, wet snows, that bend branches and bushes to the ground, brushing the snow off can help, but you can’t brush ice off, so you sort of just have to bear it, and take any damage that is dished out.
I’m a big science geek and so when I was offered a free copy of A Garden of Marvels: How We Discovered that Flowers Have Sex, Leaves Eat Air, and Other Secrets of Plants by Ruth Kassinger I quickly accepted, and I’m glad I did.
My first job was bagging groceries, however my second job was working in a research lab at Michigan State University studying the genetics of arabidopsis thaliana trying to identify phenotypes that produce increased seed oil. So I’ve always been interested in some of the science behind plants, though I’ve never taken a botany or horticulture class, and even left the world of biotechnology behind for computers while in school, not because of lack of interest though, but because it isn’t as glamorous as Jurassic Park makes it sound. Imagine harvesting and cataloging millions of seeds and then analyzing their oil content, it is cool in the abstract, but very tedious to actually sit down and do. There is a passage in the book about petunia breeding where the author remarks upon rows and rows of hundreds of plants grown just to see what their flowers will look like, with almost all of them destined to be composted, and I definitely had some flashbacks.
A Garden of Marvels takes the reader on a journey through botany, and some of the history of it. I also happen to like history so it suited me very well. There is one section where I think the author gets a little too far into history and away from the plants (following a tangent dealing with medieval study of human anatomy), but throughout the rest of the book the author is excellent. It is hard to talk about modern plant science though without hitting on some perhaps controversial and or political topics, but the author never comes off as preachy or advocating any one position.
Rather than a single narrative the book is a series of vignettes about specific topics in the plant kingdom, from how we got plants in the first place, to how we learned that plants produce oxygen, to how we learned what the purpose of flowers were (it may seem obvious now, but apparently back then there was a lot of confusion). Mostly the narrative ties together modern science with ancient developments. For instance you may learn at one point how there are two different photosynthetic pathways, C3, and C4, and how they came to be, you’ll also learn scientists are trying to develop rice that follows the more efficient C4 pathway to held the world deal with hunger. There is also a nice whole section about the evolution of plant life dealing with the transition from gymnosperms to angiosperms and how that happened, some of which I touched in my recent post about a dinosaur garden. There is also a section about the booming business of growing tomatoes in Ontario, and the farmer there who heats his greenhouse by growing, and burning, an ancient grass you might have in your garden (I do – and you should if you don’t, it is a cool plant).
So gardeners, if you’re looking for a good read, I recommend the book. Yay science!February 8th, 2014
Your landscape can be beautiful, your landscape can feed you, but your landscape can also protect you. Much like a well trained dog can be both a friend and a security system, your yard and garden can serve double duty too.
First Do No Harm
The first step to deterring burglars and other miscreants with your landscaping is to make sure you’re not doing anything to encourage them. Large shrubs or bushes that hide your windows or doors, allowing a burglar to work on them out of view, are a big no-no.
You should also keep a well maintained yard, believe it or not, a well maintained yard is a deterrent, criminals see a well maintained yard and think that you obviously take pride in ownership and are more likely to have well constructed locks or other security devices.
Fencing your yard is also a good idea, however make sure you’re not giving any bad guys a boost. So you have a 6 ft fence surrounding your back yard, do you have a grill, trash can, or raised planter right by the fence providing the would be interloper a leg up? If so, move it. Otherwise you’re doing the equivalent of leaving a ladder propped up against your house under a window (also, never leave ladders out, that is just asking for trouble).
So clean your yard, don’t give thiefs concealment, and don’t leave any tools out they might be able to use to climb in or over your defenses.
When you’re running from a bear…
Old story, when running from a bear, you don’t have to be faster than the bear, you just have to be faster than the other people you’re with. There is absolutely nothing your landscaping alone can do if a person is determined to break into your house, your goal is to make your house less attractive as a crime of opportunity than your neighbor.
The best way to do this, is with thorns. Now above I said you don’t want high bushes up near your windows and doors, and that is true, but lower bushes, especially thorny ones, are a good idea. You can build a hedge 5 or so feet off the walls of your house or your windows, not tall enough to hide the windows, but tall enough that you cannot step over it. You can also plant low bushes right up against your house near your windows, just keep them pruned so they don’t get too high, and really plant them right up against the house so there is no room to wiggle between the thorns and the siding.
Roses are an excellent choice, with pruning they stay open and won’t hide anything, their canes get decently thick and are not easily bent out of the way, and the thorns can be really, really, wicked. Some rose varieties are bread to have minimal thorns, but there are some varieties that are covered in huge thorns, to the point where you can’t even see the canes.
A plant I like and have blogged about before is barberry. I actually use both barberry and roses in my landscape for security purposes. Barberry is not as stiff as a rose would be, but it grows very very very bushy, and the thorns, while not as strong, do definitely hurt. They’re not as visible though, so might not deter someone until they are felt. If you could grow a barberry hedge around and under your windows, no burglar is going to want to wade through it to try to pry that window open. The plants are also very attractive.
Blackberry or boysenberry thorns I find to be particularly insidious, way stronger than raspberry thorns. Of course there are thornless varieties, so make sure you aren’t buy them, they also need supports so they don’t grow too low to the ground. But with these you can have your security and eat it too. Because they spread rapidly if there is say a short strip of land between your house and a walkway, that is actually a really good place to grow such bramble berries because they’re kept contained by your house on one side and the walkway on the other.
There are many woody shrubs or small trees that have wicked thorns, usually “thorn” is in the name. Such as blackthorn (Europe, originally), spiny hackberry (Texas), and my favorite, Hawthorn (Crataegus), native all over in the northern hemisphere, with hard sharp thorns up to 4 inches long. In Old English “haw” meant hedge, so you can see this plant has been used for protection for a long time. It can grow as a shrub or small tree, and can be pruned into a hedge (wear leather, please). It is also largely edible, the fruits and leaves can both be eaten (maybe that’s why the tree evolved such elaborate defenses). Hawthorn is one of those plants you could use as a very effective living fence if you have the time to let to grow and the time to maintain the pruning.December 22nd, 2013
Self-watering planters are a boon to many gardeners and have taken the gardening industry by storm in a variety of forms. Either for people who lack the room to garden in the ground, or people who lack the time for regular watering, they work great. But, how do they work, and could you make one yourself?
Do you remember the word capillary action from school? Or perhaps just wicking? This is why if you dip a piece of paper in water, the water will climb the paper. It also works with soil, and this principle is behind self-watering containers.
Essentially you have two containers in one, the lower container is a water reservoir holding potentially gallons of water, the upper container holds your soil, and it has to specifically be potting mix, regular old dirt doesn’t wick water nearly as well (nor is it good for containers anyways, always use potting mix in containers). There is a mesh connection between the two allowing some soil to get wet. Eventually your plant’s roots will reach the water, but until then the soil will wick moisture up to them. Depending on the size of your reservoir (which also needs an overflow hole so as to not get too wet) you could go weeks without watering. You can also hook a series of containers up to a rain barrel for automatic watering. A container garden that takes care of itself. To add water to the reservoir there is often a pipe or a hole for easy access. You don’t pour water through the soil to reach it, you have direct access to the reservoir.
There are however some downsides to self watering containers. Some plants do not like perpetually damp soil, the soil in a self watering pot will never completely dry out and so those plants may not be happy. Also, depending on how it is designed, there can be an issue with providing mosquitoes an ideal breeding ground (you really need to find one with some sort of cap over the reservoir access and overflow opening). When using a self watering container you directly water the roots, not the foliage so you lose out on opportunities for foliar feeding, however by keeping the leaves dry you also reduce the risk of fungal infections.
There are many types of self watering containers you can buy, but most work on this same concept. One I have is slightly different though. The Octopot uses a special bag made out of wicking fiber. I think this is a superior construction because it pulls water from the reservoir all the way up the sides of the soil, resulting in better moisture coverage in my opinion. With caps over all the ports it also is no friend to mosquitoes and includes a little water level indicator so you can easily see if it needs more water or not. One downside of it is that it is nearly impossible to move when full of water, 6 gallons plus soil is quite heavy, so either pick a spot and stick to it, or put it on a little plant dolly (little square with 4 caster wheels on it, so you can roll your containers around).
The Octopot is obviously utilitarian in appearance and so lends itself more to functional, ie edible, gardening, than ornamentals. However there are some very attractive self watering containers out there as well if you wanted something more presentable for the front walk that you could put flowers in.
You can also make your own. You simply need two plastic containers of roughly equal size. Recycling is best so think of what you use frequently. Do you get those big plastic pails of kitty litter? Ice melt salt? Do you have old 5 gallon buckets from Home Depot lying around? all could be used, though wash them out good if they were used to store yucky things. If you know someone in the food industry you may have access to old used vats of food grade plastic that once held salad dressing or something, that’d be great, you just need two of the same size that can be nested inside each other.
The bottom one you cut a hole in the side 4-6 inches up to act as an overflow, the top one you cut a hole in the bottom and line it with some sort of perforated material, then another hole in which you insert a pipe that leads to the top above the rim. Then you simply fill with soil. It won’t have the fancier features of the Octopot, but it’d get the job done. Here is a photo tutorial on building large ones out of plastic storage containers.